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George Croghan collection

 Collection — Folder: S0321
Identifier: S0321

Scope and Contents

On July 13, 1765, Indians gathered in a conference at Quiatenon, in New France (later Indiana territory), where they made speeches to George Croghan, who wrote them in very legible cursive. The five long pages are photostats containing eight speeches by “the Chiefs, and Principal Warriors of the Quiatenon, Kecopoes (Kickapoos), Mascoutens and Ottawas.” They expressed their sorrow for their evil actions and their desire for peace.

The first Indian to speak was The Wolf, a Kickapoo chief. He addressed the “Shawanese, Delawares & Six Nations.” Referring to a peace pipe, The Wolf said: “This Pipe we have now broken by the action we have committed, and we sent now another for you to smoke out of in peace.” He states: “Our Father the French has always had Pity on us.”

The second Indian speaker said: “We hurt our own Heads very much, and we now send you this pipe in peace to smoke out of it and desire you will have pity on us.” “We assure you that when we struck you, the hatchet turned in our hand, and since we have repented very much what we have done. Brethren, in striking you, we have struck ourselves.”

The third speaker, The Count Quiatonon, Chief Speaker, said: “The King your Master over the great water has ordered you to come to this country, to promote peace with all nations…” “I send you this pipe to smoke out of it, and desire you’ll forgive these people’s folly.”

The fourth speaker said: “We are very sorry for what is done… We know you have suffered a loss in having your people killed, but we send this pipe for the living and dead to smoke out of it.”

The fifth speaker said: “We and all other Nations of Red People in this Country is but few in number to what you two White Nations (English & French) are who fill many Country’s.” English and French is in parentheses in the original.

The sixth Indian speaker said: “The great Spirit who made all things made you and the French first, and us after, so that we are your youngest brethren… the Evil Spirit tempted us to do this Wicked Action in killing and robbing our Brethren, and desires once more to have Pity on Us.”

The seventh and last speaker addressed himself to the French Fathers: “You always have had us under your care, and we have always done whatsoever you desire us. You know what we have done now; it’s a very bad action, and we desire you in helping us to make it up.”

The final paragraph states: Endorsed Copy/ Speeches of the Indians of the Quabache to Mr. Croghan/ Dated Ouiatonon 13th July 1765/ In Major General Gage’s of the 23rd Sept. 1765/Inclosure 5 in No. 2/ Bundle 8.


  • 1926


Conditions Governing Access

This collection is open for research.

Conditions Governing Use

Legal title, copyright, and literary rights reside with Rare Books and Manuscripts, Indiana State Library, Indianapolis, IN. All requests to publish or quote from manuscripts must be submitted to Rare Books and Manuscripts.

Biographical Note

George Croghan was born in Ireland in 1718, and became a fur trader in the Ohio country by the mid-1740s. He was an Iroquois sachem and go-between for Pennsylvania. In August, 1849, he purchased 200,000 acres from the Iroquois. From 1756 until 1771, George served as Deputy Indian agent under Sir William Johnson. In 1771, he resigned to establish a colony called Vandalia. George was married twice. His first wife, who is unknown, gave him a daughter named Susannah (1750-1790). His second wife, the daughter of Mohawk Chief Nickus, also had a girl named Catherine (1759-1837). Mr. Croghan served as a borderland negotiator. He learned two native languages: Delaware (an Algonquian language) and Mohawk (an Iroquoian language). He died on August 31, 1782, and was buried in the churchyard of St. Peter’s Episcopal Church in Philadelphia.


Information Found within Collection and accessed on 8/29/2013.


0.01 Cubic Feet (1 folder)

Language of Materials



This collection is arranged by subject.

Custodial History

This collection was received by Rare Books and Manuscripts as a donation from the Library of Congress on 1926/07/06.


No further additions are expected.

Processing Information

Collection processing and finding aid completed by Nikki Stoddard Schofield during August 2013. EAD finding aid completed by Bethany Fiechter on 2018/05/11.
George Croghan collection
Description rules
Describing Archives: A Content Standard
Language of description
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Repository Details

Part of the Rare Books and Manuscripts Repository

140 North Senate Avenue
Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 U.S.A.